• A Data Structure with features that the Kernel uses to control how data is stored and retrieved on a storage device
  • Provides a way to organise File Directory into folders, and to keep track of which File are stored where on the device

Disk re-sizing

You can refer to Increase the size of a persistent disk | Google Cloud to play with re-sizing a file system.

Mounted File System

Always perform mount on empty file directory

Otherwise, the File in the mounted Directory of the original File System can’t be accessed

Common File Systems


  • Apple File System
  • Created by Apple, used for macOS, iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and watchOS
  • We need to use FUSE to mount APFS on Linux Kernel. One common option is sgan81/apfs-fuse


  • Extended Filesystem 4
  • The default choice on many Linux distributions. Mature, stable, and offers good all-around performance
  • Commonly used in Linux Kernel


  • EXtended File Allocation Table
  • Windows standard filesystem, both macOS and Linux Kernel support
  • Designed as a successor to FAT32, specifically for flash drives and other external storage. Handles large files and better cross-compatibility than FAT32


  • Zettabyte File System
  • Originally from Solaris, known for extreme scalability, data integrity protection, and comprehensive features (snapshots, compression, volumes). Can be resource-intensive
  • Commonly used in Linux Kernel