• Keywords that may change the behaviours of Compiler or program


  • Used to indicate to the Compiler that a variable’s value may change unexpectedly
  • Often the case when a variable is being accessed by multiple Thread or when it represents hardware that is external to the computer
  • Compiler will not optimize the code that accesses the variable. This means that the compiler will not reorder instructions or eliminate redundant reads or writes to the variable
  • This can be important for ensuring that the variable’s value is always read and written correctly
  • Example: In the below example, we have 2 exact same Instruction, for performance sake, Compiler will remove the second one since it doesn’t cause side effect inside the uartinit() function. However, this will cause us unable to set the Baud Rate!
  • Used a lot in memory mapped io
// xv6-riscv kernel source codes, uart.c
  // disable interrupts.
  WriteReg(IER, 0x00); // Where IER is 1
  // ...
  // MSB for baud rate of 38.4K.
  WriteReg(1, 0x00);
  // ...

asm volatile

// XV6-RISCV kernel codes, riscv.h
// ...
static inline void 
w_sstatus(uint64 x)
  asm volatile("csrw sstatus, %0" : : "r" (x));
// ..