• A sequence of Premise ending in a Conclusion
  • Every step should follow logically from all previous steps
  • IF (p AND ... p) THEN Conclusion is a Tautology
  • An argument can be Valid, but if the Premise is not true, the Conclusion is going to be false




Critical Row

  • A row of Truth Table in which all the Premise are true


  • Does the conclusion follow logically from the premises, regardless of whether those premises are actually true?

  • Mathematical Argument is said to be Valid if and only if whenever Mathematical Statement substituted that make all Premise true, and the Conclusion is also true

  • The conclusion logically follows from the premises. It doesn’t guarantee that the premises themselves are actually true.

  • There is Critical Row in which Conclusion is false: Invalid

  • The Conclusion in every Critical Row is true: valid

  • For all non-critical rows, regardless is conclusion is true or false: valid