doesn't return a numerical value

It is not an actual division. It is a Mathematical Statement that is either True or False

Divisibility Mathematical Model

  • Let with . There exist unique with such that

  • We call and the quotient and remainder of when divided by respectively

  • When , we can say is a Factor of

Divisibility Rule

  • An efficient way to determine if a given Integer (整数) is divisible by a fixed Factor without performing the division, usually by examining the digits of the given integer

Save Resource Usage

In order to perform division in programming, we need to store the number in a variable. If the given integer is too huge, we need a ton of memory space to store the integer and a ton of computation power to perform the division. Not to mention, In some programming languages, there is a upper value limit a variable can store before overflow.

Typical Divisibility Rules

  • Divisibility by 2: Check if the last digit is even
  • Divisibility by 3: Calculate the sum of the digits, if the sum is divisible by 3, the original number is as well
  • Divisibility by 5: Check if the last digit is 0 or 5
  • Divisibility by 10: Check if the number ends in a 0

Divisibility by 6

Since , , thus the given number must fulfil both Divisibility by 2 and Divisibility by 3 to be Divisible by 6

Divisibility Rules Exceptions

  • Divisibility by 4: Look at the last two digits. If the number formed by them is divisible by 4, the original number is too. Here, you might need to divide the two-digit number by 4
  • Divisibility by 7: This rule is trickier:
    • Double the last digit and subtract it from the remaining number
    • If the result is divisible by 7, the original number is too. You might need to divide during this subtraction step
  • Divisibility by 11:
    • Alternately subtract and add groups of digits
    • If the result is divisible by 11, so is the original number. Some division might be needed in these steps


Theorem 4.3.1

  • A positive divisor of a positive integer
  • For all positive integers a and b, if a|b, then a<=b

Theorem 4.3.2

  • Divisors of 1
  • The only divisors of 1 are 1 and -1

Theorem 4.4.3

  • Transitivity of Divisibility
  • For all integers a, b, c. If a|b and b|c, then a|c